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## Saturday, April 28, 2012

### Manual Sizing In Latex

Latex is not giving us freedom of manual text font sizing. But there is a command which can be useful to us for manual sizing the text in latex.

Sometimes the question is raised how to get bigger font sizes than the standard LaTeX command \Huge provides (see: font sizes).
It can easily done by using the \fontsize command followed by \selectfont. If unusual sizes are used the fix-cm package should be loaded.

\fontsize{36}{42}\selectfont

Don't forget to use the \textbackslash selectfont command to activate the new font size. The second argument of the \fontsize command is the interlinear space and should have about additional 20% of the first value.

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}
\usepackage{fix-cm}
\begin{document}
\end{document}

## Thursday, December 29, 2011

### Place Figure in Multicols Latex

The following, inserted into the preamble, defines two new environments, tablehere andfigurehere, which insert tables and figures inline with the column text.
% Figures within a column...
\makeatletter
\newenvironment{tablehere}
{\def\@captype{table}}
{}
\newenvironment{figurehere}
{\def\@captype{figure}}
{}
\makeatother
In addition to this, you'll probably need to scale graphics to the column width. This can be achieved with the \resizebox command inside a figure or our new figurehereenvironment. For example,
\begin{figurehere}
\centering
\resizebox{\columnwidth}{!}{\includegraphics{gf-graphs.eps}}
\caption{\label{gf-graphs}Graph showing applied RF frequency against magnetic field from the sweep coils, the gradient of the lines reveals information about $g_f$ for each isotope. The left gradient, corresponding to \chem{^{85}{Rb}} is $7.73 \times 10^9 (\pm 1.5 \times 10^8)$.  The right gradient, corresponding to \chem{^{87}{Rb}}, is $5.24 \times 10^9 (\pm 6.00 \times 10^7)$ }
\end{figurehere}

## Monday, November 21, 2011

### Fastest Folder Copy Vb.Net

For making a fastest copier window 7 comes with robocopy, stands for the robust copy, is very fast copier than the other one. But the main problem with the robocopy is that it only works with command line interface.
Here is solution of this epic problem. We are here with a full GUI robocopier. All you have to do is just follow the below procedure and make your own folder copier.

1. Make a windows form Project in vb.net 2010 and name it "Folder Copy"
2. Change the name of form from "form1.vb" to "FolderCopy.vb"
3. Add Two TextBoxes named as "SourceText" & "DestText"
4. Add a Button and Name it as "CopyBtn"
5. In the coding window make a function as below, for checking whether another copy is running or not.

Public Function IsProcessRunning(ByVal name As String) As Boolean
For Each cls As Process In Process.GetProcesses()
If cls.ProcessName.StartsWith(name) Then
Return True
End If
Next
Return False
End Function

6. Add a subroutine for disable and enable the application textboxes and buttons so that no one can change any thing in b/w by mistake.

Public Sub enable_me(ByVal stat As Boolean)
If stat = True Then
CopyBtn.Text = "Copy"
CopyBtn.Enabled = True
SourceText.Enabled = True
DestText.Enabled = True
Else
CopyBtn.Text = "Copying"
CopyBtn.Enabled = False
SourceText.Enabled = False
DestText.Enabled = False
End If
End Sub

7. Make a global string variable to hold the current path of application.

Dim own_path As String = Application.StartupPath

8. In the CopyBtn_Click event type the following code:

Private Sub CopyBtn_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object,
ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles CopyBtn.Click

Dim robo As StreamWriter
Dim robo_text As String = vbNullString

robo = New StreamWriter(own_path + "\robo.bat")

robo_text = "@echo off" +
vbNewLine +
"robocopy /e /R:1 /W:1 " +
SourceText.Text + " " +
DestText.Text +
vbNewLine

robo.Write(robo_text)
robo.Close()

'Shell(own_path + "\robo.bat", AppWinStyle.NormalNoFocus)

Process.Start(own_path + "\robo.bat", AppWinStyle.MinimizedNoFocus)

While (IsProcessRunning("Robocopy") = True)
Application.DoEvents()
enable_me(False)
End While
enable_me(True)

End Sub

9. In the Form Closing event type the following code:

Private Sub FolderCopy_FormClosing(ByVal sender As Object,
ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.FormClosingEventArgs)
Handles Me.FormClosing

Dim del As StreamWriter

If File.Exists(own_path + "\robo.bat") Then

del = New StreamWriter(own_path + "\d.bat")

del.Write("@echo off" + vbNewLine +
"del robo.bat" + vbNewLine +
"del d.bat")
del.Close()
'Process.Start(own_path + "\d.bat", AppWinStyle.MaximizedFocus)
Shell(own_path + "\d.bat", AppWinStyle.MaximizedFocus)
End If
MsgBox("Thank you For Using the Folder Copy" + vbNewLine + "Pushpkant Yadav")
End Sub

10. In form load event type the following code:

Private Sub FolderCopy_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object,
ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load
DestText.Text = Application.StartupPath

While (IsProcessRunning("Robocopy") = True)
Application.DoEvents()
enable_me(False)
End While
enable_me(True)

End Sub

that is all, now run your application, copy the path of folder of source and destination with double quotes and press copy button the application will make a batch file and copy all the files from source folder to destination folder. Remember robocopy can't copy individual files.  So never try to copy single files without the folder.

if all the above work has been done correctly the final code will look like:

'copy all files from one folder to another

Imports System.IO

Public Class FolderCopy

Dim own_path As String = Application.StartupPath

Private Sub CopyBtn_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object,
ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles CopyBtn.Click

Dim robo As StreamWriter
Dim robo_text As String = vbNullString

robo = New StreamWriter(own_path + "\robo.bat")

robo_text = "@echo off" +
vbNewLine +
"robocopy /e /R:1 /W:1 " +
SourceText.Text + " " +
DestText.Text +
vbNewLine

robo.Write(robo_text)
robo.Close()

'Shell(own_path + "\robo.bat", AppWinStyle.NormalNoFocus)

Process.Start(own_path + "\robo.bat", AppWinStyle.MinimizedNoFocus)

While (IsProcessRunning("Robocopy") = True)
Application.DoEvents()
enable_me(False)
End While
enable_me(True)

End Sub

Private Sub FolderCopy_FormClosing(ByVal sender As Object,
ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.FormClosingEventArgs) Handles Me.FormClosing
Dim del As StreamWriter

If File.Exists(own_path + "\robo.bat") Then

del = New StreamWriter(own_path + "\d.bat")

del.Write("@echo off" + vbNewLine +
"del robo.bat" + vbNewLine +
"del d.bat")
del.Close()
'Process.Start(own_path + "\d.bat", AppWinStyle.MaximizedFocus)
Shell(own_path + "\d.bat", AppWinStyle.MaximizedFocus)
End If
MsgBox("Thank you For Using the Folder Copy" + vbNewLine + "Pushpkant Yadav")
End Sub

Private Sub FolderCopy_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object,
ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load
DestText.Text = Application.StartupPath
'DestText.Text = "d:\pankaj"

While (IsProcessRunning("Robocopy") = True)
Application.DoEvents()
enable_me(False)
End While
enable_me(True)

End Sub

Public Sub enable_me(ByVal stat As Boolean)
If stat = True Then
CopyBtn.Text = "Copy"
CopyBtn.Enabled = True
SourceText.Enabled = True
DestText.Enabled = True
Else
CopyBtn.Text = "Copying"
CopyBtn.Enabled = False
SourceText.Enabled = False
DestText.Enabled = False
End If
End Sub

Public Function IsProcessRunning(ByVal name As String) As Boolean
For Each cls As Process In Process.GetProcesses()
If cls.ProcessName.StartsWith(name) Then
Return True
End If
Next
Return False
End Function

End Class

and the designer class will like:

<Global.Microsoft.VisualBasic.CompilerServices.DesignerGenerated()> _
Partial Class FolderCopy
Inherits System.Windows.Forms.Form

'Form overrides dispose to clean up the component list.
<System.Diagnostics.DebuggerNonUserCode()> _
Protected Overrides Sub Dispose(ByVal disposing As Boolean)
Try
If disposing AndAlso components IsNot Nothing Then
components.Dispose()
End If
Finally
MyBase.Dispose(disposing)
End Try
End Sub

'Required by the Windows Form Designer
Private components As System.ComponentModel.IContainer

'NOTE: The following procedure is required by the Windows Form Designer
'It can be modified using the Windows Form Designer.
'Do not modify it using the code editor.
<System.Diagnostics.DebuggerStepThrough()> _
Private Sub InitializeComponent()
Me.SourceText = New System.Windows.Forms.TextBox()
Me.DestText = New System.Windows.Forms.TextBox()
Me.Label1 = New System.Windows.Forms.Label()
Me.Label2 = New System.Windows.Forms.Label()
Me.CopyBtn = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
Me.SuspendLayout()
'
'SourceText
'
Me.SourceText.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(70, 12)
Me.SourceText.Name = "SourceText"
Me.SourceText.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(202, 20)
Me.SourceText.TabIndex = 0
Me.SourceText.Text = """I:\music\songs other0"""
'
'DestText
'
Me.DestText.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(70, 38)
Me.DestText.Name = "DestText"
Me.DestText.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(202, 20)
Me.DestText.TabIndex = 1
'
'Label1
'
Me.Label1.AutoSize = True
Me.Label1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 19)
Me.Label1.Name = "Label1"
Me.Label1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(41, 13)
Me.Label1.TabIndex = 2
Me.Label1.Text = "Source"
'
'Label2
'
Me.Label2.AutoSize = True
Me.Label2.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 41)
Me.Label2.Name = "Label2"
Me.Label2.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(60, 13)
Me.Label2.TabIndex = 3
Me.Label2.Text = "Destination"
'
'CopyBtn
'
Me.CopyBtn.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 64)
Me.CopyBtn.Name = "CopyBtn"
Me.CopyBtn.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(260, 23)
Me.CopyBtn.TabIndex = 4
Me.CopyBtn.Text = "Copy"
Me.CopyBtn.UseVisualStyleBackColor = True
'
'FolderCopy
'
Me.AutoScaleDimensions = New System.Drawing.SizeF(6.0!, 13.0!)
Me.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font
Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(284, 99)
Me.FormBorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.FormBorderStyle.Fixed3D
Me.MaximizeBox = False
Me.Name = "FolderCopy"
Me.Text = "Folder Copy Using Batch"
Me.ResumeLayout(False)
Me.PerformLayout()

End Sub
Friend WithEvents SourceText As System.Windows.Forms.TextBox
Friend WithEvents DestText As System.Windows.Forms.TextBox
Friend WithEvents Label1 As System.Windows.Forms.Label
Friend WithEvents Label2 As System.Windows.Forms.Label
Friend WithEvents CopyBtn As System.Windows.Forms.Button

End Class

### Algorithm to check Whether A process is Running or Not

Use the function and get any process is running or not.......

Public Function IsProcessRunning(ByVal name As String) As Boolean
For Each cls As Process In Process.GetProcesses()
If cls.ProcessName.StartsWith(name) Then
Return True
End If
Next
Return False
End Function

## Tuesday, August 9, 2011

### Easy Google Tricks to find serial key of anything....

Crack or find any serial for what you want(softwares,games etc).. This is the easiest way to find serials for all software or any other thing(anything), crack any serial for any software,games and many more...
Let us see how?

There is simple code for it you can easily remember '94FBR'(code)Read more:

If you want to find the serial for Windows XP Professional just type in google search..."Windows XP Professional" 94FBR followed by enter key.

If you want to find the serial for MS OFFICE 2007 just type in google search..."MS OFFICE 2007"94FBR followed by enter key.

Find any mp3 file which u want to hear or download .....There is an another trick for finding mp3 files on web...Let us see how?

There is simple code for it you can easily remember

If u want to find songs of om shanti om or any particular in this movie just type in google search or any search which u Like
"index of/" "om shanti om" .mp3

for more cd key of almost everything and simple tricks for finding the cd key's click here

## Monday, August 1, 2011

New Facebook Chat sidebar is sucking.
Here is way to bring back the old sidebar chat.

## Sunday, July 31, 2011

### Reference Books For ECE and GATE Preparations

Reference Books for ECE

Linear Algebra, Numerical Methods,Transform Theory
Higher Engineering Mathematics by B.S.Grewal

Calculus, Differential equations, Complex variables
Intermediate Mathematics, S.chand publications by B.V.Sastry , K.Venkateswarlu ( if i remember ) both the volumes.

Probability and Statistics
Probability , statistics and queuing theory by S.C.Gupta & V.K.Kapoor

Networks: Network graphs

Network Analysis by Van Valkenburg
Network Theory by Alexander Sadiku, UA Bakshi
Network Theory by Shaum’s outline, Robbins and Miller

Electronic Devices

Electronic Devices and Circuits by Boylestead
Solid State Electronic Devices by Benjamin G Streetman
Integrated electronics by Milman Halkias
Electronic Devices and Circuits by David A Bell
Integrated Circuits: Sedra Smith, K.R. Botkar
Electronic Principals by Malvino

Analog and Digital Circuits

Engineering Circuit Analysis Hayt & Kemmerly
Electric Circuits by Joseph A. Edminister
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits – Sadiku
Electronic Circuit Analysis by Donald Neamen
Electronic Devices and Circuits by Boylestead
Micro Electronic Circuits by Sedra & Smith
Digital Circuits Anand Kumar, Morris Mano

Signals and Systems

Signals and System by Oppenham and Schiener
Signals and System: by Schaum Series, Willsky & Nacob
Signals and System by Sanjay Sharma

Control Systems

Control Systems by Ogatta,Kuo
Linear Control Systems by B.S Manke

Communications

Communication Systems by Simon Haykin
Principle of Communication System by B. P. Lathi
Principle of Communication System by Taub & Schilling
Communication Systems by Carlson
Communication Systems by Sanjay Sharma

Electromagnetics

Electromagnetic Waves & Radiating Systems by Hayt, JD Kraus
Electromagnetics by J.D.Kraus
Engineering Applications of Electromagnetic Theory by Liao

Few other useful books for GATE ECE preparation:

Gate 2010 by R.S. Kanodia (for questions only)
Previous GATE Question papers(Made Easy Publishers,GK publishers etc)
Previous Engg Services question papers(Made Easy Publishers)
Aptitude Test-D R Choudhary
GATE Physics Self Study Book by Surekha Tomar
Multiple Choice Questions with Explainatory Answers by UPKAR Publication , Agra

http://www.inspirenignite.com/gate-study-material-for-ece/

## Wednesday, July 27, 2011

### Great Invention: Light Bulb

Light Bulb by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879:

Milestones:

1850 Joseph W. Swan began working on a light bulb using carbonized paper filaments
1860 Swan obtained a UK patent covering a partial vacuum, carbon filament incandescent lamp
1877 Edward Weston forms Weston Dynamo Machine Company, in Newark, New Jersey.
1878 Thomas Edison founded the Edison Electric Light Company
1878 Hiram Maxim founded the United States Electric Lighting Company
1878 205,144 William Sawyer and Albon Man 6/18 for Improvements in Electric Lamps
1878 Swan receives a UK patent for an improved incandescent lamp in a vacuum tube
1879 Swan began installing light bulbs in homes and landmarks in England.
1880 223,898 Thomas Edison 1/27 for Electric Lamp and Manufacturing Process
1880 230,309 Hiram Maxim 7/20 for Process of Manufacturing Carbon Conductors
1880 230,310 Hiram Maxim 7/20 for Electrical Lamp
1880 230,953 Hiram Maxim 7/20 for Electrical Lamp
1880 233,445 Joseph Swan 10/19 for Electric Lamp
1880 234,345 Joseph Swan 11/9 for Electric Lamp
1880 Weston Dynamo Machine Company renamed Weston Electric Lighting Company
1880 Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston form American Electric Company
1880 Charles F. Brush forms the Brush Electric Company
1881 Joseph W. Swan founded the Swan Electric Light Company
1881 237,198 Hiram Maxim 2/1 for Electrical Lamp assigned to U.S. Electric Lighting Company
1881 238,868 Thomas Edison 3/15 for Manufacture of Carbons for Incandescent Lamps
1881 247,097 Joseph Nichols and Lewis Latimer 9/13 for Electric Lamp
1881 251, 540 Thomas Edison 12/27 for Bamboo Carbons Filament for Incandescent Lamps
1882 252,386 Lewis Latimer 1/17 for Process of Manufacturing Carbons assigned to U.S. E. L. Co.
1882 Edison's UK operation merged with Swan to form the Edison & Swan United Co. or "Edi-swan"
1882 Joesph Swan sold his United States patent rights to the Brush Electric Company
1883 American Electric Company renamed Thomson-Houston Electric Company
1884 Sawyer & Man Electric Co formed by Albon Man a year after William Edward Sawyer death
1886 George Westinghouse formed the Westinghouse Electric Company
1886 The National Carbon Co. was founded by the then Brush Electric Co. executive W. H. Lawrence
1888 United States Electric Lighting Co. was purchased by Westinghouse Electric Company
1886 Sawyer & Man Electric Co. was purchased by Thomson-Houston Electric Company
1889 Brush Electric Company merged into the Thomson-Houston Electric Company
1889 Edison Electric Light Company consolidated and renamed Edison General Electric Company.
1890 Edison, Thomson-Houston, and Westinghouse, the "Big 3" of the American lighting industry.
1892 Edison Electric Light Co. and Thomson-Houston Electric Co. created General Electric Co.
light bulb, electric lamp, incandescent lamp, electric globe, Thomas Edison, Joseph Swan, Hiram Maxim, Humphrey Davy, James Joule, George Westinghouse, Charles Brush, William Coolidge, invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts.

Construction:

Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) with a filament of tungsten wire inside the bulb, through which an electric current is passed. Contact wires and a base with two (or more) conductors provide electrical connections to the filament. Incandescent light bulbs usually contain a stem or glass mount anchored to the bulb's base that allows the electrical contacts to run through the envelope without gas/air leaks. Small wires embedded in the stem in turn support the filament and/or its lead wires. The bulb is filled with an inert gas such as argon to reduce evaporation and prevent oxidation of the filament.
An electric current heats the filament to typically 2,000 to 3,300 K (3,140 to 5,480 °F)), well below tungsten's melting point of 3,695 K (6,191 °F). Filament temperatures depend on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current drawn. The heated filament emits light that approximates a continuous spectrum. The useful part of the emitted energy is visible light, but most energy is given off as heat in the near-infrared wavelengths.
Three-way light bulbs have two filaments and three conducting contacts in their bases. The filaments share a common ground, and can be lit separately or together. Common wattages include 30–70–100, 50–100–150, and 100–200–300, with the first two numbers referring to the individual filaments, and the third giving the combined wattage.
While most light bulbs have clear or frosted glass, other kinds are also produced, including the various colors used for Christmas tree lights and other decorative lighting. Neodymium-containing glass is sometimes used to provide a more natural-appearing light.

Many arrangements of electrical contacts are used. Large lamps may have a screw base (one or more contacts at the tip, one at the shell) or a bayonet base (one or more contacts on the base, shell used as a contact or used only as a mechanical support). Some tubular lamps have an electrical contact at either end. Miniature lamps may have a wedge base and wire contacts, and some automotive and special purpose lamps have screw terminals for connection to wires. Contacts in the lamp socket allow the electric current to pass through the base to the filament. Power ratings for incandescent light bulbs range from about 0.1 watt to about 10,000 watts.
The glass bulb of a general service lamp can reach temperatures between 200 and 260 °C (392 and 500 °F). Lamps intended for high power operation or used for heating purposes will have envelopes made of hard glass or fused quartz.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/lightbulb.htm

### I Networks: Network Theorems: Thevenin's Theorem

Statement of Thevenin's Theorem:

A general statement of Thevenin's Theorem is that any linear active network consisting of independent and or dependent voltage and current source and linear bilateral network element can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source in series with a resistance, the voltage source is being the open circuited voltage across the open circuited load terminals and the resistance being the internal resistance of the source network looking through the open circuited load terminals.

or we can say that

Any two terminal bilateral linear d.c. circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistor.

The theorem was first discovered by German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz in 1853, but was then rediscovered in 1883 by French telegraph engineer Léon Charles Thévenin (1857–1926).

Steps for Solving a Network Utilizing Thevenin's Theorem:

I. Remove the load resistance Rl and find the open circuit voltage Voc across the open circuited load terminals.
II. Deactivate the constant sources ( for voltage source, remove it by internal resistance which is usually zero, and for current source remove it by internal resistance which is usually infinite, so voltage source is shorted and current source is opened ) of the source side looking through the open circuited load terminals. Let this resistance be Rth.
III. Obtain Thevenin's equivalent circuit by placing Rth in series with Voc.
IV. Reconnect Rl across the load terminals.

The Load current I  can be given as:
Voc/(Rth+Rl)

## Tuesday, July 5, 2011

### GATE 2012 Syllabus For Eelctronics and Communication

Here Is the GATE 2012 Syllabus for Electronics & Communication Engineering.

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra:
Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus:
Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green?s theorems.

Differential equations:
First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy?s and Euler?s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables:
Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics:
Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods:
Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Transform Theory:
Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

Electronics & Communication Engineering

Networks:
Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton?s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic Devices:
Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits:
Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.

Digital circuits:
Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and Systems:
Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

Control Systems:
Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

Communications:
Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

Electromagnetics:
Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss? and Stokes? theorems, Maxwell?s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.